Contemporary hermeneutics and the role of the self in translation

Amrollah Hemmat

Resumen


La investigación hermenéutica, impulsada por Schleiermacher a principios del siglo XIX, parece haber conducido, en los últimos años del siglo XX, a una concepción más amplia y profunda del papel del traductor. La confluencia de diversas fuerzas y corrientes científicas y filosóficas y su consiguiente refuerzo mutuo han dado lugar a la aparición de un conjunto de teorías que se ocupan de las inquietudes del traductor en torno a la subjetividad de la traducción. Este conjunto de teorías recoge influencias tanto de las principales escuelas de pensamiento, tales como los estudios hermenéuticos de Heidegger y Gadamer, la deconstrucción de Derrida, las aventuras de Wittgenstein con los juegos de lenguaje y la atención de Michel Foucault a la reflexividad, como de estudios más recientes y menos reconocidos, como los sistemas y el pensamiento cibernético de Gregory Bateson, los trabajos sobre retórica y comunicación de Kenneth Burke, los estudios sociológicos de Ervin Goffmann y, por último, el intento directo de Alton Lewis Becker por comprender el proceso de traducción. El presente artículo sintetiza las teorías contemporáneas que conducen a tal concepción de la hermenéutica y, al combinar enfoques divergentes pertenecientes a disciplinas diversas, ofrece una perspectiva integral del papel del traductor. El autor demuestra que la sempiterna tensión existente entre la filología tradicional, con su preocupación por la fidelidad al texto original, y la hermenéutica contemporánea, ferviente partidaria del traductor que goza del excepcional papel de co-creador del texto, parece haber alcanzado un estado de armonía y equilibrio relativos gracias a estudios sobre la auto‐reflexividad.

Hermeneutic investigations, which gained momentum by Schleiermacher in the early nineteenth century, seem to have led, by the close of the twentieth century, to a much deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the role of the translator. Various scientific and philosophical forces and moves have merged, reinforced each other, and ended in a confluence of theories which address the translator’s concerns for the subjectivity of translation. This confluence is informed both by mainstream schools of thought such as Heidegger’s and Gadamer’s hermeneutic studies, Derrida’s deconstructionism, Wittgenstein’s adventures with language games, Michel Foucault’s attention to reflexivity, and by more recent and less recognized works such as Gregory Bateson’s systems and cybernetics thinking, Kenneth Burke’s rhetoric and communication studies, Ervin Goffman’s sociological studies, and finally Alton Lewis Becker’s direct attempt in understanding the process of translation. This article synthesizes contemporary thought leading to such a hermeneutics understanding. It weaves together divergent approaches from different disciplines and draws an integrated perspective on the role of the translator. The author demonstrates that the long lived tension between traditional philology with its concern for the translator’s fidelity to the original text and the contemporary hermeneutics view with its emphasis on the unique role of the translator as the co-creator of the text seems to have arrived at a relative reconciliation and ease through studies in self reflexivity.


Palabras clave


Translation; Hermeneutics; Self; Reflexivity; Deconstructionism; Traducción; Hermenéutica; El Yo; Reflexividad; Reconstrucción

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.6035/MonTI.2009.1.7